Albanian Security Barometer 2024

Supported by:Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (FES) Tirana

Project:Measuring citizens' attitudes towards security and justice in Albania

Since 2019, the Center for the Study of Democracy and Governance has published the Security Barometer, a national survey on security that measures attitudes, opinions and perceptions of Albanian citizens regarding various aspects of security.

The Security Barometer’s analysis follows the security sector reform approach, which is defined as the political and technical process of improving state and human security by applying the principles of good governance to the security sector.[1] Based on this approach, the Security Barometer explores security provision by relevant government institutions, their oversight accountability within the framework of democratic civilian control, the rule of law and respect for human rights.

Recent international events such as COVID-19 pandemic, migration, climate change, Russia’s aggression toward Ukraine, the crisis in the Middle East and increasing competition between democracies and authoritarianism have increasingly brought security to the forefront of citizens’ concerns. Governments are responding to these concerns by underpinning security through a series of reforms that aim to tackle climate change, migration, societal resilience towards malign influences and, more recently, increased defence and security spending.

This edition of the Security Barometer focuses on several themes, the majority framed mainly by the perspective of human security. Developed by the United Nations, the human security approach is complementary to the state security approach and is based on the premise that human security deprivations can undermine peace and stability within and between states. The human security framework provides for a comprehensive, people-centred and prevention-oriented approach that include threats in seven areas: Personal security, Community security, Political security, Economic security, Food security, Health security, Environmental security.[2]

Among these human security areas, this edition of the Security Barometer focuses on Political security, Economic security, Food security, Health security and Personal security although the latter is analysed from the perspective of masculinities, which can play a role in driving conflict and insecurity.

It firstly examines citizens’ perception of security threats at the national level, and the perceived influence of different countries with global or regional influence and Balkan countries on Albania. Given the specific nature of relations with Kosovo and Serbia, this survey also explores citizens’ opinions on current and future relations with these countries.

Secondly, the survey focuses on aspects related to political security. The questions in this section of the survey seek to capture citizens’ opinions on political representation and democratic values, citizens’ empowerment, their support for politics and their views on the government’s performance regarding policy areas relevant to human security and the political independence of SPAK and the Special Courts.

Next, the survey focuses on Economic security. The questions in this section seek to understand how secure Albanian citizens feel in terms of the sufficiency and stability of their current and near-future income, as well as their employment security.

Food security focuses on the sufficiency and quality of nourishment, and on the safety of the consumer food products.

Health security focuses on questions related to the access and quality of health care services in Albania as well as citizens’ (un)certainty regarding their ability to access such services.

The following theme explores personal and community security from the perspective of masculinity. Several research studies show that socially constructed gender norms associate masculinity with power, violence and control; left unaddressed, these norms can play a role in driving conflict and insecurity. This section of the survey attempts to dive deeper into the findings of the Security Barometer 2022 on gender security and gender mainstreaming.

The final theme of this Security Barometer seeks to capture Albanians support for the EU accession process and expectations. The EU accession agenda has gained new momentum particularly due to the war in Ukraine, linking this process to security concerns that may affect the Western Balkan region.

The purpose of the Security Barometer is to provide a better understanding of citizens’ perceptions and opinions on main security threats and challenges and to allow policy makers and the government institutions to undertake evidence-based policies to address and respond to these threats and challenges.


[1] Security Sector Reform. SSR Backgrounder Series. CAF – Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance. Geneva: DCAF, 2019.

[2] Haq, M., Kaul, I., Menon, S., & Jahan, S. (1994). Human Development Report 1994: New dimensions of human security. New York: UNDP.