This paper provides a critical viewpoint on the governance of Islam in Albania. Governance is understood as the relationship between state intervention and societal autonomy. The findings suggest that the governance of Islam in Albania is largely based on societal autonomy. The paper argues that this mode of governance, which has evolved since the end of the communist regime,...
Since the end of the cold war Albania and Turkey have developed a close security relation. This relation has been driven mostly by Turkey’s policy approach towards the Balkans and Albania’s need for a reliable security partner in the region. However, over the last decade Turkey has shown its readiness to pursue policies that are not always compatible with...
In the post cold period intelligence reform has been driven by the democratisation of intelligence and the introduction of norms and values that stand for the respect of fundamental human rights and civil liberties and the need for effective and timely intelligence to counter the new emerging threats. This paper analyses the intelligence reform in Albania by examining (1)...
The institution of free and fair elections is one of the fundamental criteria of democracy. In order to fulfil this criterion it is vital to choose an electoral system that serves two main principles: the guarantee of a representation that is as proportional as possible on the one hand and a stable government on the other. An electoral system...